Papillomas are benign papillary structures on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes. The reason is the human papillomavirus (HPV), which infects most of the world's population. Growth can occur in any part of the body, including private parts and internal organs.
What causes papilloma?
The disease is sexually transmitted in 50% of cases, but it may not manifest itself in any way for a long time. The observed clinical symptom is the weakening of the body's immune defenses, which is caused by colds, inflammations, and chronic diseases accompanying internal organs.
Human papilloma most often appears in adolescence, which coincides with the occurrence of sexual activity. In young people, the cause may be frequent anal intercourse between sexual partners. In private areas, growth usually takes place within 1-2 months without protective measures.
Papilloma in women is more common than in men. Benign formation can occur in the anus, the anogenital area of the cervix, and the mucous membranes. This is usually the cause of cancer of the reproductive organs. Due to weak immunity, young children are susceptible to HPV infection; the virus is spread from infected parents through close family contact.
Usually, overweight patients will ask a dermatologist a question: Why do papillomas appear on the body? In overweight people, the signs of the disease are particularly often diagnosed. The reason is abnormal metabolism in the body. Growth is mainly concentrated in the skin folds of the armpits, groin, under the breast, neck, eyelids and face.
Why do papillomas appear on the body and where do they come from?
After entering the blood, the papilloma virus begins to actively multiply and affect the upper layer of the skin. If the immunity is strong enough, the external manifestations of infection will not be observed for a long time. However, when favorable conditions are created, pathological proliferation of epithelial cells will occur.
The incubation period does not exceed 3 months, but in some cases, the incubation period of the disease can last as long as 2 years. The causes that cause papilloma to appear in the body are influenza, poisoning, severe stress, acute inflammation, pregnancy, and puberty.
The main ways of HPV infection:
- From the sick mother to the child, through the birth canal. This can happen if a woman has papilloma in a private place. Pathogens can also enter the baby through breast milk.
- Sexually, this disease is spread from an infected partner to a healthy partner. Reduce the risk of using condoms. However, in the case of localized growth in the perineum or anus, contraception is ineffective.
- The infection at home occurs through an ordinary towel and sanitary products. Therefore, the virus enters the child's body.
- When a benign structure is damaged by a razor or tight clothing, self-infection can be observed. The growth is occurring in greater numbers elsewhere.
Types and external signs of papilloma
According to the type of pathogen, there are more than one hundred manifestations of the virus:
- Condyloma acuminatumOccurs in the external genitalia, anus, and perineum of men and women. They have a peculiar shape, reminiscent of a rooster's comb or broccoli. Forms many kinds, causing itching and discomfort. In rare cases, anogenital warts are located on the mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue, and lips.
- Simple wartIt is round and usually affects the limbs. There are usually many papillomas, the rash lasts for 6-8 months, and then it can go away on its own without any treatment.
- Flat warts or juvenile wartsPuberty Puberty occurs in the context of hormonal changes in the body. Usually, this papilloma is located on the face, neck, fingers and toes from the back. The growth is flat, light pink or beige, painless.
- Filiform warts or acrobats-These are elongated shapes in light pink or tan. It is most common in women under the breast, neck, eyelids, face and groin, and armpits.
- Plantar wartPositioned on the soles of the feet and the inside of the hands. This growth can cause itching and uncomfortable walking. This papilloma looks like a round shape, similar to corn. In the center-black spots, along the edges-keratinized skin rollers.
- Carcinogenic papilloma virusHumans cause the development of female laryngeal cancer and reproductive organ cancer.
Treatment of face and body papilloma
In most cases, the growth of the skin does not cause discomfort and does not require treatment. Exceptions include formations that are permanently damaged and are cosmetically defective.
The HPV virus cannot be completely cured, but supportive therapy can prevent skin growth. For infected people, it is very useful to adhere to proper eating habits, participate in sports, perform health care procedures and give up bad habits.
First of all, it is best to treat papillomavirus with topical preparations.
If no positive changes are observed after taking the medicine, the growth can be removed by surgery. However, if there is no initial routine intensive treatment, this method will be ineffective because it may relapse. First of all, a course of treatment must be added to enhance the body's immune defense capabilities. The patient is taking immunomodulators, vitamin complexes, antiviral drugs and cytotoxic drugs. In the case of concurrent diseases, the focal point of inflammation should be cured.
If a papilloma is suspected to be more than 1 cm in diameter, the pathology must be treated surgically. The doctor will remove the deposits and a small amount of surrounding tissue. Then apply decorative stitching.
Other ways to treat papilloma of the face and body are:
- Freeze destruction-This is the effect on low temperature (-196°) tumors. The procedure is painless and does not require the administration of anesthetics. After treatment with liquid nitrogen, the deposit turns white and then forms blisters in its place. Pathological cells gradually die. This method helps treat papillomas on the neck, eyelids, private areas and other sensitive skin areas.
- Electrocoagulation-This is the effect of high-frequency current on the affected area. Place a special ring on the growing narrow leg or bottom to cauterize the tissue. After that, the papilloma is easily removed. No bleeding occurred.
- Laser removalIt is the least traumatic treatment. The affected area is exposed to the carbon dioxide beam, the liquid evaporates, the tissue is dehydrated, dried and turned into a dark crusty, which will fall off after a week. When removing papillomas on the eyelids and face, it is necessary to avoid exposure to ultraviolet light on the skin, otherwise pigmentation may occur.
- Radiosurgery treatmentUse special equipment. The treatment method is similar to laser moxibustion, except that a radio knife is used in this case. After removal, no scar remains.
- Chemical destruction methodBy applying organic acid on the surface of papilloma, the structure of pathological cells is destroyed.
With lower pain threshold or larger growth size, local anesthesia can be used. After the operation, the patient must follow the doctor's advice and be disinfected. The removed papilloma was sent for histological examination to rule out the presence of cancer cells.
If the affected area is not completely treated, it will recur after surgery. In this case, accumulations appeared again.
Removal of condyloma acuminatum
Before performing this procedure, a person must pass a biochemical blood test to check for the presence of antibodies against the HPV virus, smears for urogenital infections, and tissue biopsy. Based on the results of the study, doctors choose the best treatment plan.
Anogenital warts can be removed in the same way as papillomas on the neck and face. These are cryogenic freezing, laser radiation, electrocoagulation, radio wave treatment, and chemical destruction.
It is recommended that all patients treat papillomas in the privacy of their own because they can infect their partners with the virus. The growth of women’s vagina and cervix needs to be removed urgently because they can cause cancer.
Prevent human HPV
The only way to prevent papillomavirus is to vaccinate. In some countries/regions, such measures are included in the mandatory vaccination list; in other countries/regions, the procedure is performed at the request of patients.
The vaccine injection is divided into 3 stages, with an interval of 1 to 6 months after the first injection. Scientific research has confirmed the effectiveness of this method, which can eliminate the cause of benign lesions on the skin.
Other preventive measures include protecting sexual intercourse, choosing partners carefully, enhancing immunity, improving the body, using personal hygiene products, and promptly treating infectious diseases.
The dermatologist will be able to answer questions about why papilloma grows and how it should be treated. The doctor will conduct an examination, prescribe laboratory tests and choose the necessary treatment options.