The human papilloma virus (HPV) – the extremely widespread throughout the world, an infection that is sexually transmitted.
The special feature of this infection is that it can for many years not to exercise, but in the end, lead to the development of benign tumors (papilloma virus) or malignant (cervical cancer) diseases of the genital organs.
Types of the human papilloma virus
Known more than 100 types of HPV. Types — is a sort of "subtypes" of viruses, which differ between them. Types are identified with the numbers that have been assigned to them opening.
The group of high oncogenic risk are the 14 types of: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 (these types of are relevant to the development of cancer of the neck of the uterus).
In addition, there are types of low oncogenic risk (mainly 6 and 11). They lead to the formation of anogenital warts (genital warts, warts). The papilloma viruses are found on the mucosa of the vulva, of the vagina, in the perianal, skin of the genitals. They are almost never become cancerous, however, lead to considerable cosmetic defects in the genital area. The warts in other parts of the body (hands, feet, face) can also be caused by these types of viruses, and can have different origin. In subsequent articles separately to discuss the types of HPV "high-risk" and "low-risk".
Infection by the human papilloma virus
It transmits the virus, especially during sexual intercourse. Sooner or later HPV infected almost all of the women: up to 90% of sexually active women will face this infection in the course of life.
But there is good news: most of the infected (about 90%) released from HPV without any health interventions in a period of two years.
This is the normal course of the process of infection, caused by HPV, in the human body. This is enough time for the immune system of a person completely freed from the virus. In this situation, the HPV will not bring any harm to the body. That is, if it was discovered the HPV some time ago, and now there is absolutely normal!
It is necessary to consider that the immune system works different people with "different speed". In this regard, the speed of liberation from HPV can vary of sexual partners. Therefore, it is possible that when one of the partners was discovered the HPV and the other not.
Most people infected with HPV shortly after the beginning of sexual life, and many of them will never know they have been infected with HPV. The immunity persisted after the infection is not formed, then it is possible to re-infection as the same virus, which has already had a meeting, and other types of viruses.
HPV "high-risk" is dangerous because it can lead to the development of cancer of neck of uterus and some other types of cancer. Other problems of HPV "high-risk" does not. The HPV leads to the development of inflammation of the mucosa of the vaginal/cervical, disorders of the menstrual cycle, or infertility.
HPV does not affect your ability to conceive and carry a pregnancy pregnancy. A child of HPV "high-risk" is not transmitted during the pregnancy and during the birth. The diagnosis of human papilloma virus
Exams for HPV of high oncogenic risk up to 25 years, virtually useless (in addition to those women, who soon begin a sexual life (till 18 years of age)), as well as in this moment is very high the probability of detecting the virus, that soon he will go alone from the body.
After 25 – 30 years to donate the analysis makes sense:
- together with the analysis on cytology (PAP – test). If there are changes to the PAP — test and HPV "high-risk", such a situation requires special attention;
- the long persistence of HPV "high-risk" in the absence of cytological changes that also need attention. It has recently been demonstrated that the sensitivity of HPV testing in the prevention of cancer of the neck of the uterus, the higher the sensitivity of the cytological examination, due to definition only or HPV without cytological examination) is approved as an independent research for the prevention of cervical cancer in the UNITED states. But in Russia the recommended annual cytological examination, therefore, it seems reasonable that the combination of these two studies;
- after the treatment of dysplasia/precancerous/cancer of the neck of the uterus (the lack of HPV in the analysis after the treatment is almost always evidence of the success of the treatment). For the research it is necessary to obtain smear from the cervical canal (perhaps the research material and from the vagina, however, in the context of the selection it is recommended that you obtain the material of the neck of the uterus).
The analysis must take:
- 1 time per year (if the HPV "high-risk" previously, it was discovered, and the analysis of rent collaboration with cytological research);
- 1 time in 5 years, if the previous analysis was negative.
Exams for HPV low oncogenic risk there is no need almost never. If papillomas and no, this analysis does not make sense in principle (carriers of the virus is possible, the treatment of the virus is not, therefore, deal with the result of the analysis, we do not know).
If papilloma viruses there are, then:
- often they are caused by HPV;
- to eliminate them it is necessary, regardless of the fact that we are 6/11 types or not;and
- if you decide to take the smear, then directly with us, papillomas, and not vaginal/cervical.
There are tests for the detection of HPV types. If you routinely rent their HPV test, pay attention to exactly which types included in the analysis. Some laboratories do research only on the 16 and 18 type, other for all kinds of together. You can also do an examination that will allow you to identify all of the 14 types of the virus "high risk" in quantitative terms. Quantitative characteristics are important for predicting the likelihood of developing precancer and cancer of the neck of the uterus. Apply these tests must, in the context of prevention of cancer of the neck of the uterus, and not as a test. The analysis for HPV with no results, and cytology (PAP test) often does not allow to draw conclusions on the state of health of the patient.
This analysis, which will identify the "yes" if the virus has a particular patient or not.
The treatment for the human papilloma virus
There is no drug treatment for HPV. There are methods for the treatment of diseases caused by HPV (papilloma virus, dysplasia, premalignant, cancer of the neck of the uterus). This treatment should be carried out with the application of surgical techniques (cryocoagulation, laser, radio knife).
No "stimulant" does not have any relationship with the treatment of HPV, and should not apply. None of the known drugs have not been adequate tests which have demonstrated their efficacy and safety. In some protocols/standards/guidelines these drugs are not included. The presence or absence of "erosion" of the neck of the uterus does not affect the tactics of the treatment of HPV.
If the patient has no complaints, but no papillomas/changes on the cervix during colposcopy, and according to the PAP — test, there are treatments that are not needed.
Should just resume the analysis of 1 year, and monitor the status of the neck of the uterus (every year, the PAP — test, colposcopy). The majority of patients of the female sex virus "" from our own body. If you do not will go away, which is completely optional, which will lead to the development of cancer of the neck of the uterus, but the control is necessary. Treatment of sexual partners is not necessary (except in those cases in which both partners have genital warts).
Prevention of infection by the human papilloma virus
Developed a vaccine to protect against the 16 and 18 types of HPV (one of the vaccines also protects against 6 and 11 types). HPV types 16 and 18 to be "responsible" for the 70% of cases of cancer of the neck of the uterus, but because the protection from them is so important. Vaccination is applied in 45 countries in the world. The condom (not provides 100% protection).