What is HPV?
Genital human papillomavirus infection is an infection that is sexually transmitted (STI). The causative agent, infection by hpv - human papilloma virus (HPV). The human papilloma virus is a group of viruses, which includes about 100 different types. More than 30 types of HPV transmitted sexually, infecting the sexual organs and the area of the anus men and women.
The majority of infected people are not aware of his illness, do not have clinical manifestations and, in addition, may heal spontaneously.
Of these viruses-called the virus a "high carcinogenic risk", can cause precancerous lesions in the genitals. The studies of the last years have confirmed the main role of HPV in the development of cancer of the neck of the uterus. High-risk HPV also play a role in cancer of the vulva, of the vagina in women and penile cancer in men. To virus at high risk refer 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 68, 69 types of these types of HPV are responsible for 95-98% of cases of cervical cancer development. They cause the growth of abnormal cells, which is usually and almost invisible during the normal examination compared to benign warts are caused by a virus low risk – 6, 11 types. Benign anogenital warts appear to be 2 – 6 months after infection. For the development of precancerous or cancerous changes associated with the carriage of high-risk HPV should be years and often happens spontaneously, a cure against HPV.
The infection is most common in the age from 15 to 40 and affects at the same way and the women and the men. At the age of 50 years, about 80 percent of women will earn by HPV infection.
About 50-75% of people sexually active are infected by HPV during their lives, and in most cases the infection does not cause disease and heals spontaneously.
About 90% of HIV also have HPV infection.
As we pass on the HPV virus
The human papilloma virus, infectious sexual area, and is transmitted through sexual contact. Most of the people infected are not visible manifestations of the disease and then carriers of HPV are not aware of their infection and can infect their sexual partners. Sometimes infected mother can infect the baby during childbirth. This can lead to the so-called the papillomatosis larynx infants.
Manifestations of infection
Most people infected persons do not know about it. HPV often does not cause any mark on the skin and mucous membranes. Of people develop genital warts or you have precancerous changes on the cervix, vulva, anal region or the penis. Very rarely, these changes go directly into the cancer. From infection to development of severe dysplasia in the average is 20 years. The majority of women who heals spontaneously over a period of 9 – 15 months from the time of infection. The main manifestation of hpv infection – sexual condyloma or genital warts (caused by HPV 6 and 11 type) - soft warty training in short a " thin stem, similar to a cauliflower or cockscomb with a different arrangement (the head of the penis, penis, small and large labia, the vagina, the cervix, the area of the anus). Genital warts appear after 2 – 6 months after infection. Visible condyloma found during the inspection.
The diagnosis of infection
The diagnosis of warts is held on the basis of the inspection. The diagnosis of high-risk HPV as a carcinogen, and related changes, the most difficult task. Based on the diagnosis of diseases precancer of the neck of the uterus, for many, was cytological analysis of smear (a smear under the microscope). However, it has some significant disadvantages – complexity, low sensitivity, and high frequency, with uncertain results. The committee the american FDA (committee for medicines and food) has approved the research of the HPV method of polymerase chain reaction - PCR, which can determine 13 types of high risk HPV. PCR for the HPV has a high sensitivity, is simple to perform. The share of investigations cytological and PCR testing significantly improves the diagnostic efficiency, the sensitivity increases up to 99 – 100%. It is important that the identification of high-risk HPV occurs long before the onset of precancerous changes mucous membranes.
PCR the research of high-risk HPV recommended:
- - As the main method in addition to cytology for women over the age of 30 years.
- - For the avoidance of doubt the results of the cytological examination.
- - Patients in therapy about dysplasia or cancer.
- - In the first phase of diagnostics for countries, where the poorly organized programs of examination for hpv infection.
- - For the examination of men.
If it is possible to cure this disease?
Diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, must be carried out in conditions of specialized clinic – HPC, with all the necessary tools for a quick and accurate diagnosis.
Specific drugs against HPV to today there are. There are many methods for removing warts, but the disease can return because the virus stays in the human body. Relapses are possible in 25% of cases within 3 months after the treatment. In the treatment of warts is necessary in the inspection of sexual partners. However, the vast majority of sexual partners infected with HPV and just don't have the visible manifestations of the disease.
Treatment of diseases precancerous is to use chemical, physical and other methods, with the objective of modifying the structure of the affected areas of the mucous membranes, as well as the use of drugs stimulating the immune system. You need to annual cytological examination and determination of HPV by PCR.
What is the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer?
Just the facts:
- The human papilloma virus high-risk are the main cause of cervical cancer.
- In the cases of severe dysplasia (precancer) and cancer of the cervix HPV registered in almost 100% of cases.
- HPV is associated with 250 fold increased risk of severe dysplasia.
- The cancer of neck of uterus is 1 ° place among the causes of mortality of women in developing countries.
- Cancer of the neck of the uterus is at 2nd place after breast cancer among women all over the world – 250 thousand deaths every year.
- In Russia every year, 12, 300 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and more than 6 thousand patients die each year.
- In the last 10 years the average age of cases fell from 58 to 55 years.
- In women up to 29 years the incidence has grown in 2 times.
- High-risk HPV to cause cancer of the neck of the uterus in 100% of cases, cancer of the anus – 90%, cancer of the vagina and of the vulva – 40%, cancer of the penis – the 40% and cancer of the oropharynx in 12% of cases.
- The american Cancer Society provided for the year of 2004, that approximately 10 520 women will develop aggressive cancer of the neck of the uterus and about 3 900 women will die of this disease. The majority of women with an aggressive cancer of the neck of the uterus, have not passed a proper investigation for HPV infection.
Prevention of infection
The safest way to avoid sexual infection with HPV is to abstain from any sexual contact with another individual.
A long-term sexual relationship with a sexual partner regular, not gives 100% guarantee of HPV infection. It is difficult to determine, without special tests, train if you currently have sexual partner.
Latex condoms, with the right application to reduce the risk of transmission of infection.
Any events, such as pain or discomfort during urination, extraordinary rash, selection are a signal for the cessation of sexual relations, and immediate investigation, in terms of specialized clinic. If the patient has encountered sexually transmitted diseases, you must inform your sexual partner, to have also passed the comprehensive examination and the appropriate treatment. This will reduce the risk of development of serious complications and prevents the possibility of a new infection.